The basic principle of the hydraulic system is very simple: the force acting on one point is transferred to another point through an incompressible liquid. Usually some kind of oil is used as the liquid medium. During this process, the force usually increases.
The physical principle of the hydraulic machine: suppose that two suitable pistons are placed in two cylinders that are filled with oil and connected by an oil pipe. If one of the pistons is pressed down, the pressure will be transmitted to the second through the oil in the oil pipe. Pistons.
Due to the incompressibility of oil, the pressure transmission efficiency is very high, and almost all the force is transmitted to the second piston. The pipe connecting the two cylinders can be of any length and shape, as long as it can pass through all the devices between the two pistons. The pipe can be bifurcated so that if necessary, the main cylinder can have more driving force than the auxiliary cylinder.
Hydraulic and more advanced systems
Heavy hydraulic machines work according to the same principle, but most of them use hydraulic pumps instead of simple main cylinder pistons to drive the pistons. The hydraulic pump is very similar to the water pump. It draws liquid from the liquid tank and introduces it into the hydraulic system with high pressure.
The simple piston just mentioned can only provide one-way boost. In order to be able to push the piston out, an improved system must be used so that liquid can be introduced into either end of the piston head in the cylinder.
In this system, there are only a few components. The hydraulic pump draws liquid from the liquid tank and pressurizes it. The spool valve controls the path of liquid flow. If you turn the spool valve to the right, pressurized fluid (as shown in orange) will flow into the right side of the cylinder. When the piston slides to the left, the piston will push the unpressurized liquid (as shown in yellow) back into the liquid tank. The piston retracts. When the spool valve is turned to the left, pressurized liquid enters the left side of the cylinder, pushing the liquid on the right side into the liquid tank. The piston protrudes out of the cylinder.
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