At present, many domestic operators who are just engaged in CNC machine tools are classified. Some of them are familiar with machining, but they are unfamiliar with programming of CNC machine tools. Some of them are just graduated students. They are familiar with machining knowledge, Cnc Machining and programming theory, but lack of practical machining experience; There are also many operators who have never been exposed to machining and programming. It is very difficult for them to learn how to operate CNC machine tools.
For these beginners of CNC machine tools, it is very important to master certain operating skills of CNC machine tools. On the one hand, they can avoid machine tool collision accidents, resulting in machine tool damage; Second, it can quickly improve the operator’s CNC machine operation skills in a short time, and be competent for the job. In this paper, especially for the operators who have just been in contact with CNC machine tools, some theoretical knowledge about the operation skills of CNC machine tools are introduced, hoping to have some reference significance for the operators who have just engaged in CNC machine tools.
First, the operator should have a comprehensive understanding of the CNC machine tool
Understand the mechanical structure of the machine tool: understand the mechanical structure of the machine tool; It is necessary to master the shafting distribution of the machine tool; We should firmly grasp the positive and negative directions of each NC axis of the machine tool; To master the function and use of various parts of the machine tool, such as simple pneumatic system principle and function, simple hydraulic system working principle and function; In addition, it is necessary to master the working principle and function of the auxiliary units of the machine tool, such as the working principle, function and use method of the tool magazine, cooling unit, voltage regulator, electrical cabinet cooler and other units, as well as the working principle, function and use method of each safety door lock of the machine tool.
Firmly grasp the function of each operation button of the machine tool: know how to execute the program; how to pause the program and check the processing state of the workpiece, and then resume the suspended state to continue executing the program, how to stop the program; how to execute the program after changing the program, and so on.
Understand what kind of operating system the machine tool you are operating; briefly understand the control principle and working method of the numerical control system; what kind of working language the system uses, the software used for machine tool processing and the language used. If the operator does not understand the language or the professional vocabulary of the language, then professional training is needed. They do not want to be engaged in the bottom-level operators of the machining center. They need to take careful notes during the training. What Chinese meaning each vocabulary represents, you must memorize it by rote so that you can use the machine tool correctly in your work in the future.
The second point is to be proficient in controlling the manual or automatic operation of CNC machine tools, and be proficient in controlling the movement of each CNC axis of the machine tool.
The operator must reach the realm of practice makes perfect, so that he can retract and release freely under any circumstances; only in the event of a collision or failure, the operator can correctly and timely deal with the problem, and the operator will form a conditioned reflex. , And decisively take braking measures.
In addition, the operator must be very familiar with the processing procedures of the CNC machine tool; what kind of processes and operations the machine tool should have and what actions should be very familiar. When the machine tool executes the program, you can know at the first time whether the machine tool action is correct and whether you need to take braking measures. In addition, every beginner operator has more or less fear in the early stages of operating the machine tool, fearing that the machine tool will hit the machine or the machine will hit. Then only after the operator has mastered the operation of CNC machine tools, can he overcome similar fears and learn and master higher CNC machine operation skills on this basis.
Third, you must be proficient in program editing, parameter compensation of each process and compensation of the diameter and length of the tool or grinding wheel.
First of all, you need to be trained to master the programming language, programming method and parameter compensation method of the CNC machine tool you want to operate. You don’t want to be the operator at the bottom of the machining center all the time. Now most advanced CNC machine tools are equipped with programming or simulation PC workstations. Then beginners can first perform software editing and machine tool cutting simulation learning on the workstation.
In the process of learning programming, do not only pay attention to the simulation results, but more importantly, learn the simulation processing process. You must understand what kind of tool or grinding wheel is required to process the workpiece, and what motion trajectory the CNC axis of the machine tool completes the cutting process; When performing a specific process, the position and direction of the movement of the relevant parts in the machine tool; pay attention to the movement direction and cutting direction of each axis when performing the processing, including how to feed and retract the tool, pay attention to each work in the machine tool processing The fast forward speed and displacement of each step, the speed and displacement of each work step.
In the process of processing by simulation software, all parameters must be input correctly in the process of simulation. Don’t input carelessly because of simulation, so the result of simulation processing may be incorrect; Or cause the collision accident in the actual processing, or scrap the parts. If the simulation software has the function of anti-collision test, it is necessary to use the function to check the correctness of programming.
In addition, the operator needs to pay special attention: the simulation processing is only a result in theory, does not mean that the machine tool will not collide in the actual cutting process, nor does it mean that the qualified products can be processed. The purpose of simulation is to save programming time, improve the actual utilization of the machine tool, and reduce the debugging time when processing the workpiece, which does not represent the actual part processing. To complete the perfect workpiece processing is inseparable from the wisdom and sweat of CNC machine tool operators.
Point four, the processing skills in the actual processing process, carefully prepare for the work, first read the drawings, confirm the position of the workpiece to be processed, confirm the accuracy tolerance of the workpiece to be processed, and then edit the processing program.
It is necessary to prepare the workpieces and tools or grinding wheels needed in the processing, prepare all the inspection instruments needed in the processing process, and prepare all the auxiliary tools and fixtures required in the processing process.